Lady in the Dark
Lady in the Dark
Music by Kurt Weill | Book by Moss Hart | Lyrics by Ira Gershwin
Although Liza Elliot is at the top of her field as the successful editor of a fashion magazine, her mysteriously profound lack of fulfillment frightens her into psychoanalysis. She has been unsettled by confused and fantastic dreams, the central characters of which are, in various guises, four men: her married lover, a handsome if shallow movie star, the magazine's flamboyant photographer and her chief nemesis, the cynical advertising manager. The ensuing exploration of the psychological implications of dreams makes for the most intelligent, stylish and theatrical of musicals. Uniquely structured like a straight play, the arresting score arrives in extended interludes that dramatize Liza's dreams. Ultimately, it is the memory of a haunting childhood song that she has been unable to recall that sets her free.

Act I

New York, ca. 1940. Fashion magazine editor Liza Elliott has suffered from unexplained panic attacks and depression for months. Despite misgivings, she visits a psychoanalyst. As Liza--dressed primly and without makeup--stretches out on the couch, she hears the melody of a children's song ("My Ship") that has been haunting her.

Suddenly we are swept into the through-sung Glamour Dream, featuring characters from Liza's office. Twelve tuxedoed swains serenade Liza, now in evening attire, as the most glamorous woman in the world ("Oh Fabulous One"), while her maid can't keep up with all the invitations from the glitterati ("Huxley"). Her chauffeur Beekman whisks her to a swanky nightclub; at Columbus Circle she stops to address the crowd ("One Life to Live"). At the club, she is showered with admiration ("Girl of the Moment"). A U.S. Marine, as directed by the President, paints her portrait for a new postage stamp. But when he unveils it, it is a picture of the prim, businesslike Liza. She screams and awakens suddenly on Dr. Brooks's couch. He points out the paradox that Liza rejects glamor for herself, yet makes her living promoting glamor for other women.

In Liza's office at Allure magazine, photographer Russell Paxton is organizing a fashion shoot with movie star Randy Curtis while advertising manager Charley Johnson, whom Liza cordially detests, banters impudently with her. Enter Allure's publisher, Kendall Nesbitt, Liza's long-time boyfriend (he is married to another woman), who announces that he is getting a divorce. He is alarmed by Liza's panicked reaction. Randy asks Liza to dinner the following night. She absent-mindedly accepts, but, still shaken, retreats to her private office and begins to hum the tune again.

Suddenly the Wedding Dream takes over the stage. Liza's fellow high-school graduates recall her as she was in school ("Mapleton High Chorale"). Her fiancé Kendall takes Liza to buy a wedding ring from Charley. But the ring is a dagger and Liza recoils. Now Randy emerges as a mythic figure from history to court the enraptured Liza ("This Is New"). Charley and Randy take turns dancing with Liza, whereupon the children's tune comes back, reminding Liza of a school play from her childhood ("The Princess of Pure Delight"). Liza's office desk momentarily reappears but then morphs into a church for Liza's wedding day. Charley, now a minister, asks if anyone knows why Kendall and Liza should not be married. The chorus says that Liza does not love Kendall; Liza insists she does, and there the dream ends.

Liza returns to Dr. Brooks. After a contentious session, Dr. Brooks suggests that she is refusing to compete for men with other women, and she storms out, breaking off the therapy. At her office, Kendall presses her, but she still refuses to marry him. Charley suggests to Liza a circus theme for the cover of the Easter issue, but they quarrel again; this time he resigns from the magazine. Randy shows up for their dinner date, and they go out together.

Act II

The next day, Liza is still moping in her office, unable to decide on a magazine cover. As she hears imaginary voices chiding her, including those of Kendall, Charley, and Randy, the office suddenly turns into a Circus Dream, with ringmaster Russell and chorus presenting "The Greatest Show on Earth": Liza Elliott's neuroses. After a "Dance of the Tumblers," the circus turns into a courtroom, and Liza is charged with being unable to make up her mind. Charley is the prosecutor, Randy the defense attorney, and Kendall the chief witness ("The Best Years of His Life"). Russell interjects a dizzying catalogue of the names of fifty Russian composers ("Tschaikowsky"). Then he calls Liza to the stand. Liza defends herself with the tale of a girl who was too decisive ("The Saga of Jenny"). But just when she thinks she's triumphed, the jury hums the mysterious tune and scares her out of her wits.

The dream ends and suddenly Liza is in Dr. Brooks's office. The Circus Dream has reminded her of the humiliation she felt as a child. A series of flashbacks without music ensues. Liza's father announces that he's happy Liza is plain and not beautiful like her mother. A boy refuses to act the prince in a grade school play if Liza is the princess. When she is ten Liza's mother dies, but Liza does not grieve. A handsome boy asks her out, and at last she recalls in its entirety the tune which has been haunting her ("My Ship"); then she learns he has chosen another girl. With Dr. Brooks's help, Liza begins to find the roots of her unhappiness in her childhood traumas.

A week later, a much calmer Liza arrives in her office. Charley, who has already given notice, surprises Liza by asking her out to dinner. Kendall appears and tells Liza he accepts her decision to leave him. Randy enters and proposes to Liza, but she is too stunned to respond. Charley returns to tell her he will not apologize for his insults. To his surprise, she asks him to stay on at Allure as co-editor--and hints at romance as well. Liza begins humming "My Ship" and Charley cheerfully joins in. Curtain.

© The Kurt Weill Foundation for Music

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Trivia for Lady in the Dark

In 1941, LADY IN THE DARK premiered at the Alvin Theatre in New York where it ran for 467 performances.
In 1904, Moss Hart was born; playwright, director, and producer. Hart collaborated with Irving Berlin on the shows FACE THE MUSIC and AS THOUSANDS CHEER, created LADY IN THE DARK with Ira Gershwin and Kurt Weill, and also worked with Lorenz Hart and Richard Rodgers on the musical satire I'D RATHER BE RIGHT.
In 1896, Ira Gershwin was born. The iconic librettist created many works with his brother George, and collaborated with Kurt Weill on the musical LADY IN THE DARK.
In 1942 LADY IN THE DARK closed on Broadway after 467 performances.

 Press for Lady in the Dark

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“Uses the resources of the theater magnificently and tells a compassionate story triumphantly ... the finest score written for the theatre in years.” — The New York Times, 1941
“A high point in the history of the American musical stage. It proves that a musical show can be both engrossing and magnificently entertaining without sacrificing high imagination, acute intelligence, superbly unified and thoroughly artistic production, and an underlying seriousness of purpose.” — Chicago Daily Tribune, 1943
“It comes as a delightful shock to discover what a convincing musical play—complete with song and dance—Moss Hart, Ira Gershwin and Kurt Weill made almost 60 years ago out of Freudian psychotherapy, dreams and a suitable case for treatment…. Lady in the Dark has lost none of its satirical sharpness at the expense of a New York high fashion magazine. ‘My Ship’ and much of the haunting music goes with a real period lilt. It swoons and smooches, yearns and saunters.”  — Evening Standard, 1997
"Weill’s music is plangent and sinuous, a remarkable synthesis of Weimar jazz and pre-Sondheim querulousness.” — The Observer, 1997
"Lady in the Dark remains fascinating, its score one of the most intriguing of its period, with Gershwin contributing some of the finest stage lyrics, and Weill expanding the vocabulary of Broadway melody via his unique harmonies and rhythms."  — In Theatre, 1998
“The overwhelming effect of Lady in the Dark, still, 60 years later, is of startling originality.”  — Boston Globe, 2000
“Its primal work-versus-love scenario is timeless. As are Weill’s haunting music and Gershwin’s witty lyrics.” — Philadelphia Inquirer, 2001
“In its scope and complexity of invention the score stands as one of the half-dozen finest ever composed for Broadway. No wonder Stravinsky admired it and Copland envied it. Lady has great tunes, snappy numbers, and hit songs, but it also burrows deep.” — Boston Globe, 2000
“Moss Hart’s wry, playful, intelligent book, Ira Gershwin’s wittily sophisticated lyrics and Kurt Weill’s hauntingly gossamer melodies… the innovative 1941 Broadway hit is a multifaceted gem.” — San Francisco Chronicle, 2001
"Uses the resources of the theatre magnificently and tells a compassionate story triumphantly...the finest score written for the theatre in years...the lyrics are brilliant." — The New York Times, 1941
"A witty book by Moss Hart, delicious lyrics by Ira Gershwin and a gorgeous score by Kurt Weill." — New York Daily News, January 01, 1998
Lady In The Dark, Die Welt
Written By: Manuel Brug , October 17, 2011

“The overture comes before the second act. The first quarter of an hour at the Staatsoper Hannover consists of spoken dialogue only. There is a woman lying on the couch. A doctor is listening. And almost everything else about this 1941 musical differs from the usual model. For the lavish song and dance numbers, only three in number with a brief final song, are like mini-operas in a clever spoken play. They embody the nightmares and desires of the protagonist, sometimes glamorous, sometimes romantic, sometimes surreal, sometimes oedipal. . . .  
Three of the biggest Broadway talents wrote Lady in the Dark: The book is by the successful playwright and director Moss Hart, the lyrics are by Ira Gershwin, and the music is by United States émigré Kurt Weill. With this work, he became an American. That was the opinion of the New York critics, who were actually expecting more of the proletarian Weimar Republic sound, but the audience loved the piece and flocked to the theater—for two years. On four turntables a display was accomplished that would cost roughly ten million euros today. . . .
Although it has hardly ever had the opportunity to be seen in Germany before now, today the admittedly ambitious, extravagant Lady in the Dark has become the musical of the moment. . . . Lady in the Dark is about the state of exhaustion and psychoanalysis, Freudiana and frigidity, nerves and neurosis, fashion and mental breakdowns:  that is, Burnout on Broadway. . . .   
Under the seemingly nonchalant, never obvious direction of Matthias Davids, the performers move beautifully on the set, which is sparse but cleverly jazzed up with video. . .  the Staatsorchester under Mark Rohde warms up to an elegant, variegated Weill sound. . . .  When she finally understands [the meaning of the song from her childhood, “My Ship”], Liza is even willing to throw herself around the neck of her nemesis, the macho head of advertising.  And all is well in Musical Land. Hannover rejoices, and we hope this intelligent and sparkling Weill jewel will soon be seen in other productions.”
Lady In The Dark, Hannoversche Allgemeine
Written By: Rainer Wagner

“She can’t make up her mind. About the cover for the next issue of the magazine, about her family situation, about the right man to choose. The reasons for this mental block are unclear. For that reason, the Lady in the Dark lies on the psychiatrist’s couch to look inside herself.  What she discovers there was fascinating to the premiere audience at the Hannover Staatsoper. Kurt Weill’s musical was justly celebrated. Because the 70-year old piece was a great hit on Broadway, it’s hard to understand why it disappeared from the stage. . . .
Lady in the Dark is a challenge. Not only for the curious audience, but also for the theater and its facilities, beginning with the fact that the piece is two things in one. The spoken play is longer than the music side—one waits for almost 10 minutes for the first note. But the Hannover opera ensemble mastered the acting challenges confidently. . . .
The story jumps back and forth between the magazine’s editorial offices, the psychiatrist’s practice, and the dream world. Matthias Davids, who has already illustrated numerous times in Hannover how good (and intelligent) entertainment can look, coordinates these jumps perfectly and always has another idea on hand. Heinz Hauser creates for him a refined mirrored construction to play in—and later another clever set for the courtroom in the Circus Dream. . . .  One can’t look fast enough to see how the costumes are changed. Above all, those of Winnie Böwe, who is perfectly cast as Liza Elliott, because she always finds the right tone. Whether in “The Saga of Jenny” or the touching “My Ship” (that brings the evening to a happy end), Winnie Böwe avoids operatic pathos without falling into a nightclub style.  . . .”
Lady In The Dark, Neue Presse
Written By: Henning Queren


“The devil wears Prada, and he is somehow also a part of this piece. The story is really super, the whole craziness of the Vogue-Mode media world, with a heavy shot of psychoanalysis and burnout on top. More contemporary it could hardly be—and yet it was written in 1941 by Kurt Weill as a real Broadway musical. The four nightmares:  They are worth the visit, and the costuming ideas are on a real Broadway level. When Liza Elliott dreams that the next cover for her magazine should somehow depict a circus, a choreographed (Melissa King) troupe of clowns romp animatedly over the stage.  During the dream courtroom scene, applause breaks out when Justice, in the guise of a gigantic Barbie doll with the judge happily rocking in its giant bra, is rolled out on the stage. And the video projections (Max Friedrich, Daniel Wolff), which give the whole affair the necessary lunacy, are fantastic.
The music:  Also worth the visit. When it really gets cracking (as at the beginning of the Second Act), it is the best quality Broadway. Liza Elliott (Winnie Böwe) has two numbers with goosebump potential:  “My Ship” (a favorite of  Julie Andrews) and the lavish “Saga of Jenny.”  And then, too, there is the song “Tschaikowsky,” in which Russell Paxton (Daniel Drewes) spins out the names of 50 Russian composers one after the other—applause—and repeats them even faster in an encore. . . .  The public was enthusiastic to the highest degree.”
Lady In The Dark, Die deutsche Bühne
Written By: Rainer Wagner

“So it is with fashion: As soon as something is 70 years old, it seems like new again. In fashion it’s called Retro, in theater it’s repertoire revival. And because Kurt Weill’s Lady in the Dark is about mistakes and confusion in the circus of fashion, the elderly lady looks very good. In Hannover the seldom performed Broadway musical was deservedly praised, because the Staatsoper did itself proud in this partnership between play and musical. Die Dame in Dunkeln  was successfully pushed into the spotlight.”

Musical Numbers for Lady in the Dark

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Provided by The Kurt Weill Foundation

It was Kurt Weill's first runaway Broadway hit, the show that assured his financial security and made him, in songwriter Ann Ronell's words, a "big shot" on the Great White Way. Cecil Smith, the most astute and highbrow musical theater critic in America during the 1940s, later said that the only other Broadway musical that could touch Lady in the Dark as a "wholly satisfactory drama" was South Pacific. Though it was one of a trio of artistically adventurous musicals opening in the 1940-1941 season (the others were Cabin in the Sky and Pal Joey), musically and formally Lady in the Dark was the most cutting-edge of the three. It put Gertrude Lawrence on the cover of Time, brought Ira Gershwin triumphantly back to Broadway, made a star of Danny Kaye, and was "the biggest therapeutic factor in [Moss] Hart's own psychoanalysis" according to Hart's friend, New York Times critic Brooks Atkinson.
The prolific Moss Hart had co-written with George S. Kaufman an extraordinary string of comedy successes in the '30s, but he suffered from depression and severe insomnia, and he wanted to strike out on his own. Hart had begun psychoanalysis in 1933; in 1937 he tried to interest Kaufman in a musical about analysis, to star Marlene Dietrich, but the idea died aborning. By 1939 he was thinking about it again, this time as a straight play for Katharine Cornell called I Am Listening (the three words with which Hart's analyst Dr. Lawrence Kubie began every session). Weill met Hart late in 1939, and they agreed to use the play to create a new kind of musical show. While there is no evidence Weill ever visited a psychiatrist, Johnny Johnson (1936) had featured not only a shrink but an entire asylum, and while writing Lady he made notes on his own dreams. The portrayal of analysis in Hart's play, while whirlwind, is surprisingly realistic, perhaps because the script "was vetted at every stage by his analyst," writes Hart biographer Steven Bach.
In his first Broadway venture after his brother George died, Ira Gershwin contributed the lyrics, among his very finest. (In his memoir, Oscar Levant wrote, "Ira's own favorite lyrics are those for Lady in the Dark.") The Gershwins had first encountered Gertrude Lawrence when she starred in Oh, Kay! in 1926. The gifted but temperamental Lawrence (whom Kaufman and Hart had lampooned as Lorraine Sheldon in The Man Who Came to Dinner) played hard to get when Hart tried to sign her to play Liza Elliott; Hart finally forced the issue by offering the role to Irene Dunne (ironically, Dunne originated the title role in the movie Anna and the King of Siam, which Gertrude Lawrence later played in The King and I). Lawrence played the entire run, which included a remarkable three separate stints on Broadway: January-June 1941 (the show closed for the summer to protect Lawrence's health), the 1941-42 season, and the spring of 1943 following a road tour in the fall of 1942. During that time, she also kept up a grueling schedule of war relief benefit appearances.
The physical staging of Lady in the Dark prefigured by decades the cinematic, high-tech shifting sets that became commonplace in the late 20th century. Designer Harry Horner created four turntables that enabled the psychiatrist's and Allure magazine offices to dissolve into dream scenes and back again. When Lawrence came down with the flu, Hart himself played Liza in the tech rehearsals but had to be guided through the complex turntable movements by a stagehand. Hart directed the book scenes, but Hassard Short handled the musical dream sequences. The production was visually stunning thanks not only to Horner and Short but also to Hattie Carnegie, Lawrence's couturier; Irene Sharaff, who costumed everybody else; and choreographer Albertina Rasch.
The sophistication of both lyrics and music shows up in puns and allusions on multiple levels. For instance, Gershwin quotes Cavalier poet Robert Herrick's line, "The liquefaction of her clothes," from "Upon Julia's Clothes" a few moments before he has Liza sing "One Life to Live"--which draws on Herrick's carpe diem poems. When Ringmaster Russell Paxton in the Circus Dream asks, "Who wrote that music?" and launches into "Tschaikowsky," Weill is actually alluding to his "Glamour Theme" of the earlier "Glamour Dream," the first seven notes of which are an almost note-for-note reminiscence of the D major theme from Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet Overture. (In Johnny Johnson, the "Sergeant's Chant" similarly parallels the march melody from the first movement of Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony.)
Conductor Maurice Abravanel had a huge job rehearsing the elaborate chorus parts, and he "brought out the fresh and interesting timbres of Weill's masterly instrumentation without overbalancing Miss Lawrence's slender voice," said Cecil Smith. Unlike some of Weill's other American scores, Lady's orchestral timbres change kaleidoscopically from section to section. Among many inspired details: the "tapestry of the unconscious" suggested by the figuration (piano and clarinet sextuplets, muted brass half-notes, bass line eighths, high strings, and percussion in quarters) after the hummed syllables of "My Ship" at the Glamour Dream's opening; the Glamour Theme's sly transformation into a catchy foxtrot when Liza enters the nightclub; the ghostly, echoing effect of the chorus's "Liza Liza" at the beginning of the Wedding Dream, with brass foreshadowings of "This is New" mated to the bolero rhythm; and the borderline polymetric vocal ensemble at the end of the Wedding Dream, where multiple voices converge as if in a nightmare. The overture (used as an entr'acte) is one of the greatest of the American theatre, and "This is New" one of Weill's half-dozen best American songs. The Glamour Dream plays like an inspired musical rendering of a George Grosz painting of the Stork Club.
Gertrude Lawrence's performance "was one of the supreme virtuoso feats of the modern theatre. From her everyday character she moved, within a split second, and with no possibility of the external aid of changed makeup, into a variety of startlingly different phases," recalled Cecil Smith. The splendor of her performance is not preserved in her colorless, perfunctory recording of six songs a month after the show's opening. Fortunately for posterity, Lawrence later did two one-hour versions of the show for radio's Theatre Guild on the Air in front of live audiences, and here we find her exquisite acting, incandescent charm, uproarious comedic shtick, and sheer sex appeal in abundance. Although many numbers are cut and the orchestrations are not Weill's, the Gertrude Lawrence of legend (particularly in "Saga of Jenny," Weill's American swing moritat) emerges in these remarkable broadcasts. The October 19, 1947 broadcast has much the better supporting cast (Alan Hewitt, Bert Lytell, John Conte); the March 5, 1950 broadcast, released on the AEI label, with Hume Cronyn, Arthur Vinton, and Macdonald Carey, has an even gutsier Lawrence performance.
Gertrude Lawrence is a hard act to follow. The 1944 Paramount film adaptation with Ginger Rogers butchered Weill's score, but Alfred Hitchcock's psychiatric thriller Spellbound (1945) owes much to Lady in the Dark. Moss Hart's wife Kitty Carlisle later played Liza in summer stock, and Ann Sothern starred in a 1954 television adaptation. A 1963 studio recording conducted by Lehman Engel (who conducted the premiere of Johnny Johnson and remained Weill's friend), with Risë Stevens as Liza, was the first recording to use Weill's orchestrations. More recently, Christine Ebersole played the lead in the 1994 Encores! concert presentation in New York, and Maria Friedman in the first London production in 1997; a successful French production toured in 2009. Some reviewers of these revivals found the material dated and sexist. But Gabriel Byrne has made his mark as a television shrink (In Treatment), like Lorraine Bracco in The Sopranos, and fashion editors like Anna Wintour are still celebrities. Any time is right to revive the show that Cecil Smith called "Weill's best gift to the American stage, beyond all debate."
Mark N. Grant in 2006 became the first composer to receive the Friedheim Award since the Kennedy Center Friedheim Award program ended in 1993. He has written music for both the concert hall and opera/music theater and is also the author of two ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award-winning books, The Rise and Fall of the Broadway Musical (2004) and Maestros of the Pen: A History of Classical Music Criticism in America (1998).

© The Kurt Weill Foundation for Music


Premiered January 23, 1941, at the Alvin Theater, New York, directed by Moss Hart and conducted by Maurice Abravanel.

Awards for Lady in the Dark

London Evening Standard Awards

1997 — Award for Best Musical

Vocal Range of Characters:

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Writers Notes for Lady in the Dark

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Rental Materials for Lady in the Dark

STANDARD

  • LADY IN THE DARK - Orchestration Package (19 Books/18 Players)
    • 1 – FULL SCORE I (Conductor)
    • 1 – FULL SCORE II (Conductor)
    • 1 – FULL SCORE III (Conductor)
    • 1 – PIANO
    • 1 – FLUTE (Doubles Piccolo)
    • 1 – REED I (Clarinet, Alto Sax)
    • 1 – REED II (Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Alto Sax, Baritone Sax)
    • 1 – REED III (Oboe, Clarinet, Tenor Sax)
    • 1 – TRUMPET I
    • 1 – TRUMPET II
    • 1 – TRUMPET III
    • 1 – TROMBONE
    • 1 – ORGAN (see note below)
    • 1 – PERCUSSION (see "Materials Notes", under "Production Information")
    • 1 – VIOLIN I (Divisi)
    • 1 – VIOLIN II (Divisi)
    • 1 – CELLO I
    • 1 – CELLO II
    • 1 – BASS
  • Rehearsal Set (22 Books)
    • 20 – Libretto-Vocal Books
    • 1 – Logo CD
    • 2 – Piano Vocal Scores
    • Digital Logo

ADDITIONAL

  • Libretto/Vocal Books 10 pack
    • 10 – Libretto-Vocal Books
  • LADY IN THE DARK - PRE-PRODUCTION PACKAGE
    • 1 – Libretto-Vocal Books
    • 1 – Piano Vocal Scores

Cast Requirements for Lady in the Dark

PRINCIPALS
4 Women
5 Men

FEATURED
7 Women
4 Men

ENSEMBLE
Large singing-dancing ensemble featuring children.

CHARACTERS
Dr. Brooks
Miss Bowers
Liza Elliot
Miss Foster
Miss Stevens
Maggie Grant
Alison Du Bois
Russell Paxton
Charley Johnson
Joe
Tom
Kendall Nesbitt
Helen
Ruthie
Carol
Marcia
Ben Butler
Barbara
Jack

CHARACTER DOUBLING:

GLAMOUR DREAM
Sutton - Miss Foster
Beekman - Russell Paxton
Marine - Charley Johnson
Pierre - Kendall Nesbitt

WEDDING DREAM
Jewelry Salesman and Minister - Charley Johnson

CIRCUS DREAM
Ringmaster - Russell Paxton
Trapeze Artist - Charley Johnson
Lion Tamer - Kendall Nesbitt

Set Requirements for Lady in the Dark

LADY IN THE DARK takes place in two offices and a series of dreamscapes.

SPECIFIC LOCATIONS
Dr. Brooks' Office
Liza Elliott's Office
Four Dream Sequences: Glamour Dream, Wedding Dream, Circus Dream, Childhood Dream

Materials Notes

ORGAN NOTE: Sounds needed: Xylophone, Vibraphone, Church Chimes, Muted French Horn, Slap Bass, Church Organ, Calliope, Open French Horn, Tuba. (May be replaced with a Harmonium)
Trap Set [Snare Drum, Tom-toms, Bass Drum, Cymbal, Military Drum, Circus Drum], Glockenspiel, Vibraphone, Xylophone, 2 Timpani, Triangle, Wood Blocks, Gong, Chinese Cymbal, Tambourine, Castanets, Whip, Gavel, Bells, Door Bell, Horns and Sirens, Electric Phone Bell, Finger Cymbals.

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