Carousel
Carousel
Music by Rodgers, Richard | Book by Oscar Hammerstein II | Lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II | Based on the Play LILIOM by Ferenc Molnar | As adapted by Benjamin F. Glazer | Original Dances by Agnes de Mille
In a Maine coastal village toward the end of the 19th century, the swaggering, carefree carnival barker, Billy Bigelow, captivates and marries the naive millworker, Julie Jordan. Billy loses his job just as he learns that Julie is pregnant and, desperately intent upon providing a decent life for his family, he is coerced into being an accomplice to a robbery. Caught in the act and facing the certainty of prison, he takes his own life and is sent 'up there.' Billy is allowed to return to earth for one day fifteen years later, and he encounters the daughter he never knew. She is a lonely, friendless teenager, her father's reputation as a thief and bully having haunted her throughout her young life. How Billy instills in both the child and her mother a sense of hope and dignity is a dramatic testimony to the power of love. It's easy to understand why, of all the shows they created, CAROUSEL was Rodgers & Hammerstein's personal favorite.

The time is 1873. The place, a small fishing village on the rocky New England coastline. Billy Bigalow, the handsome and swaggering barker for Mrs. Mullin’s carousel in the local amusement park, meets Julie Jordan, a lovely young working girl at the nearby mill, when Julie and her friend Carrie Pipperidge come to the carousel. Billy and Julie fall in love and are soon married.

Everyone, it seems is against this union – the townspeople caution Julie and Billy is warned  and even threatened by his boss, Mrs. Mullin, who is jealously in love with him. Because of the marriage, Billy loses his job. Thereupon he becomes sullen and difficult, raging bitterly and bullying his wife – until Julie quietly informs Billy that he is about to become a father.

Desperately anxious to provide for the coming child, Billy is persuaded by Jigger, a shiftless sailor, to take part in a hold-up. The robbery attempt is thwarted; Jigger escapes, but Billy is caught by Mr. Bascombe, the would-be victim, who vows to hand him over to the police with the prospect of a long prison term. Cornered, disgraced and terrified for Julie and their unborn child, Billy kills himself. Julie arrives on the scene and cradles Billy as he dies in her arms.

Fifteen years pass. Billy, escorted by a Heavenly Friend, arrives in the backyard of Heaven. Here he meets The Starkeeper, who informs him that he will never get into Heaven until he redeems himself. After some argument, Billy is given a chance. He is allowed to return to Earth for one day, during which he must perform one good deed. Afforded a glimpse of Louise, his lonely and unhappy fifteen-year-old daughter, Billy steals a star to give to her at their first meeting. But back on earth, he is still the rough blunder. Louise is shy and won’t accept his gift. Unable to reach her in any other way, Billy slaps his daughter – but the sting feels miraculously like a kiss to the girl. Louise explains this to her mother, Julie, who also sees the star that Billy has left behind, and instinctively, Julie understands.

Nevertheless, Billy has not yet performed his good deed, and the slap should have been his final straw. But Billy persuades the Starkeeper to give him one last chance. Unseen, Billy watched Louise at her high school graduation. He observes his daughter’s self-doubts, her insecurities. Invisibly, spiritually, Billy reaches out to her; he urges her to believe in herself, and he is filled with pride as he watches his daughter blossom with confidence. Turning to Julie, Billy says simply, “I love you, Julie. Know that I love you.” And Julie, somehow, hears him. She joins Louise and the rest of the townsfolk in singing “You’ll Never Walk Alone”…as Billy heads towards heaven.


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News for Carousel
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News for Carousel

Live From Lincoln Center presents the New York Philharmonic’s production of Rodgers & Hammerstein’s iconic American musical, Carousel, featuring a star-studded cast including Kelli O'Hara, Nathan Gunn, Stephanie Blythe, Shuler Hensley, Jason Danieley, Jessie Mueller, Kate Burton, John Cullum and New York City Ballet dancers Robert Fairchild and Tiler Peck. “Rodgers & Hammerstein’s Carousel” is hosted by Audra McDonald and will air on PBS stations on Friday, April 26, 2013 at 9 p.m. (ET) (check local listings) read more
CAROUSEL - Rodgers & Hammerstein's personal favorite of all their musicals, and dubbed "the best musical of the 20th Century" by Time Magazine - is getting two high-profile presentations this spring.  read more
It's been very hard to figure out what to write about Mary. I knew her for so many years, under so many different situations.  She was a life force, that is for sure, and I owe her so much. Read more →
Our newly available restoration of OKLAHOMA! arrives on the heels of the R&H restorations we've previously released, those for CAROUSEL, ALLEGRO, SOUTH PACIFIC, THE KING AND I, PIPE DREAM and THE SOUND OF MUSIC. Read more →
If you really like theater, there are few experiences as cool as standing off stage in the wings during a curtain call.  If that moment marks the end of a limited run of a production that has clearly energized the theater, it becomes all the more remarkable.  Read more →

Trivia for Carousel

In 1955 St. Louis Municipal Opera kicked off a six-week "Rodgers & Hammerstein"" festival featuring a symphony concert and productions of CAROUSEL, ALLEGRO, THE KING AND I, and SOUTH PACIFIC."
In 1878 Hungarian playwright Ferenc Molnr was born in Budapest, Hungary. His play LILIOM served as the basis for Rodgers & Hammerstein's CAROUSEL.
In 1917 John Raitt - the original Billy Bigelow in CAROUSEL- was born in Santa Ana, California.
In 1955 the advance team from Twentieth Century Fox arrived in Boothbay Harbor, Maine, to begin preproduction work on the movie version of CAROUSEL. It was announced that Judy Garland and Frank Sinatra will star, but she dropped out prior to filming and he less than two weeks into the shoot. They were replaced by Shirley Jones and Gordon MacRae.
In 1956, Twentieth Century Fox released the movie version of CAROUSEL starring Shirley Jones and Gordon MacRae.
In 1917 Jan Clayton, the original Julie Jordan in CAROUSEL, was born in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
The birthday of choreographer Agnes de Mille, whose innovative vision created the dream ballet in OKLAHOMA! and the second act ballet in CAROUSEL. She also was the director and choreographer of ALLEGRO.
In 1897, Rouben Mamoulian was born in Russia. He directed Oklahoma! (1943) and Carousel (1945).
In 1921, Gordon Albert MacRae was born in East Orange, New Jersey. His screen appearances would include Curly in OKLAHOMA! (1955) and Billy Bigelow in CAROUSEL. (1956)
In 1945 the world premiere of CAROUSEL was presented at the Shubert Theatre, New Haven.
In 1994, the revival of CAROUSEL at the Lincoln Center Theatre opened for a run of 337 performances, winning five Tony Awards, including Best Revival of a Musical, Best Direction, and Best Choreography.
In 1954 General Foods sponsored a tribute to Rodgers & Hammerstein broadcast on multiple networks. Hosted by Mary Martin and featuring segments from OKLAHOMA!, STATE FAIR, CAROUSEL, ALLEGRO, SOUTH PACIFIC, THE KING AND I and ME AND JULIET with many members of the original casts, it also included special appearances from Jack Benny, Groucho Marx, Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy, Ed Sullivan, and Rodgers & Hammerstein.
The birthday of musical film actress Shirley Jones. She was born in Smithtown, Pennsylvania. After making her stage debut in the chorus of SOUTH PACIFIC and appearing in ME AND JULIET on Broadway and on tour, she wons the coveted role of Laurey in the movie version of OKLAHOMA! (1955) and followed that with the role of Julie Jordan in the movie of CAROUSEL (1956).
In 1945 CAROUSEL opened at the Majestic Theatre, New York, where it ran for 890 performances.
In 1905, the world premiere of Ferenc Molnar's play LILIOM is presented at the Vigsznhz Theatre, Budapest. It is produced in New York several times with several different translations (one allegedly written by Lorenz Hart) before Rodgers & Hammerstein adapted the Benjamin Glazer text as their basis for CAROUSEL.
In 1992, the Royal National Theater's revival of CAROUSEL opened in London.
In 1947 the national tour of CAROUSEL began at the Shubert Theatre in Chicago and closed on February 22, 1949, at the Majestic Theatre, New York (return engagement), after an 88-week, 44-city tour.
Did you know? In February 1945, one of CAROUSEL's financiers informed Hammerstein that contrary to a line in "June is Bustin' Out All Over,"" sheep actually mated in the fall - not in June. Hammerstein wrote back that he was ""thrown into consternation by the unwelcome news about the eccentrically frigid behavior of ewes in June."" Yet he chose to keep the stanza about sheep in the song."
In 1954, a Broadway revival of CAROUSEL opened at City Center, directed by Oscar Hammerstein II's son, William Hammerstein.
In 1958, CAROUSEL was presented at the U.S. Pavilion at the Brussels' World Fair.
In 1950, CAROUSEL opened at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London, where it ran for 566 performances.
In an early draft of CAROUSEL that anticipated the show's Boston opening, Hammerstein wrote the note, "There will probably be an encore. If not, the author and composer will probably jump in the Charles River."""
Did you know that Richard Rodgers cited CAROUSEL as his favorite musical? ?Oscar never wrote more meaningful or more moving lyrics, and to me, my score is more satisfying than any I?ve ever written. But it?s not just the songs; it?s the whole play. Beautifully written, tender without being mawkish, it affects me deeply every time I see it performed.?
Did you know? In CAROUSEL, Billy meets the Starkeeper after his death. The Starkeeper gives Billy an opportunity to return to earth for one day to see his daughter. It was director Rouben Mamoulian who suggested this character for Broadway, replacing Rodgers and Hammerstein?s own idea of a Mr. and Mrs. God that played only in the show's out-of-town tryout.
?When I marry Mr. Snow? sings Carrie in CAROUSEL, ?Everythin?ll be as right as right ken be.? Did you know that her beau Enoch Snow was inspired by Snow's Clam Chowder, a well-known brand in the mid 1940s? The company founder, Fred Snow, launched the family business in Maine, 1920. Fred's father was a local fisherman named Enoch Snow. According to the F.H. Snow Canning Co., Snow?s Chowder was served at the opening night party for CAROUSEL and promoted during the Broadway run.

 Press for Carousel

  • Quotes
"BEST MUSICAL OF THE CENTURY!" — Time Magazine, January 01, 1999
"Beautiful, bountiful, beguiling...it is the product of taste, imagination and skill." — New York Daily Mirror, January 01, 1945
"As close to perfection as musical theater gets...At the end of CAROUSEL, the communal heft of this theatergoing experience will ensure that you won't be walking alone." — Boston Globe, January 01, 2002
"As close to perfection as musical theater gets...At the end of CAROUSEL, the communal heft of this theatergoing experience will ensure that you won't be walking alone." — Boston Globe, January 01, 1996
"CAROUSEL will be 50 next year, but as of this morning, it is the freshest, most innovative musical on Broadway. It is also the most beautiful." — David Richards, The New York Times, January 01, 1994
"The audience is awash in the optimistic glow of Oscar Hammerstein's words and the glory of Richard Rodgers' music, beyond all reason. And CAROUSEL cements its estate in musical theatre heaven." — Alvin Klein, The New York Times, January 01, 1997
"It still makes an emotional impact and is as relevant today as ever." — Steve Cohen, Broad Street Review, January 01, 2007

Musical Numbers for Carousel

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Other Versions



The Theatre Guild, a theatrical producing organization which flourished on Broadway from the early ‘20s for over half a century, hit upon successful formula of turning a few of its classic plays into classics of musical theatre. Their production of Gershwin’s PORGY AND BESS was based on their production of DuBose Heyward’s PORGY; likewise, Rodgers & Hammerstein’s OKLAHOMA! was based on Lynn Rigg’s  GREEN GROWN THE LILACS.

In 1921 The Guild presented the American premiere of a new play called LILIOM by the renowned Hungarian playwright, Ferenc Molnar. Benjamin Glaser was the translator (although a fascinating and never-proven rumor has suggested that an early translation of LILIOM was provided by Rodgers’ first partner, Lorenz Hart), and Eva Le Gallienne created the role of Julie to Joseph Schidkraut’s portrayal of the title role.
 
LILIOM was a critical and popular success for the Guild; set on the outskirts of Budapest, its mix of whimsy and pathos, tragedy and fantasy, hit a chord with the American public. The Guild knew they had a winner; more than that, they felt its potential could be further exploited. A preliminary request to Molnar that LILIOM be musicalized, following on the heels of PORGY AND BESS, was rejected; but a subsequent proposal, this time fresh on the heels of OKLAHOMA! and with the understanding that the authors of that musical adaptation would tackle this one as well, met with Molnar’s approval. LILIOM could sing, if Rodgers & Hammerstein wrote the score.
 
However, there was yet another problem, this time on the American side of the equation: in 1945, at the height of World War II and the Nazi occupation of Europe, Budapest was not a romantic of uncontroversial setting for a musical. If LILIOM were to work, it would have to be relocated, and Rodgers and Hammerstein were reticent to do so. Theatre Guild producer Theresa Helburn suggested a New Orleans setting, with Liliom becoming a tough and exotic Creole character. Hammerstein demurred on the grounds that his lyrics, always rife with dialect of the setting they were placed in, would be riddled with so many “ze’s” and “zose’s” as to make the songs sound like so manu buzz saws.
 
Helburn was determined not to let the idea go, and she persisted. It was Richard Rodgers who came up with the concept of New England in the late 19th century—and suddenly the idea fell into place. While visions of clambakes and fishing boats danced in their heads, the authors went to work. The very first song they wrote for the score was the most daunting—Billy’s powerful and insightful “Soliloquy.” As daring as anything in the groundbreaking OKLAHOMA!, this number provided character, story, passion and heartfelt emotion—in an unprecedented eight-minute solo. After the “Soliloquy” everything fell into place: the upbeat choral numbers ( “June is Bustin’ Out All Over,” “This Was a Real Nice Clambake”), the love songs (“If I Loved You,” “When I Marry Mister Snow,” “What’s the Use of Wond’rin,”  and “When the Children are Asleep,”) and the haunting and inspirational “You’ll Never Walk Alone.” CAROUSEL proved that the extraordinary innovations of OKLAHOMA! were no one-time fluke; the opening scuttled the traditional overture and replaced it with a lush “Carousel Waltz” joined by a storied prologue in mime; and this was followed by the now-classic “Beach Scene” in which dialogue and snatched of song we intermingled to breathtaking effects.
 
CAROUSEL shared with OKLAHOMA! its stellar creative team: authors Rodgers & Hammerstein of course, and director (Rouben Mamoulian) and choreographer (Agnes de Mille.) After tryouts in New Haven and Boston, CAROUSEL opened at Broadway’s Majestic Theatre on April 19, 1945, where it ran for 890 performances. While not the spectacular success the OKLAHOMA! was, CAROUSEL managed to do the impossible—follow a mammoth success and stand on its own right. Audiences in the throes of World War II could not help but be moved by the story of a young widow raising a child without its father. The final scene, in which Bill comes back to Earth spiritually and reaches out to Julie and their daughter Louise, was played before countless war widows, parents, children and siblings who had lost a loved one overseas. The effect of CAROUSEL and “You’ll Never Walk Alone” is haunting, to this day.
 
The original Broadway cast featured John Raitt as Billy, Jan Clayton as Julie, and Jean Darling as Carrie. Winner of the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award as Best Musical of 1945, the Broadway run was quickly followed by a two year national tour, as well as countless productions throughout the world. In 1950, CAROUSEL premiered at London’s Theatre Royal Drury Lane, where it played for 566 performances, and in 1956 the motion picture version, starring Gordon MacRae as Billy and Shirley Jones as Julie, was released.

 


OKLAHOMA!, the first musical Rodgers & Hammerstein wrote together, wasn’t a mere success: it was a phenomenon. An artistic triumph that changed the course of musical theatre, it shattered box office records when it opened in 1943, outran every show before it, held Broadway's longevity crown for fifteen years, and launched the Rodgers & Hammerstein partnership as Broadway's Golden Team in Broadway’s Golden Era.

Inevitably the question arose: what could possibly follow OKLAHOMA!? In his autobiography Rodgers recalls the sage advice he received from film mogul Sam Goldwyn: "This is such a wonderful show!" Goldwyn bubbled. "You know what you should do next? Shoot yourself!"

Fortunately Rodgers & Hammerstein had other ideas in mind. Their first assignment after OKLAHOMA! was a new work in another medium altogether—writing the score for a movie musical called STATE FAIR (1945), a charming depiction of homespun Americana that introduced "It Might as Well Be Spring," the Academy Award winner for Best Song of the Year.

Still, Hollywood was only a detour on the return to Broadway. As with OKLAHOMA!, it was Rodgers & Hammerstein’s producers, Lawrence Langner and Theresa Helburn of The Theatre Guild, who provided the team with the source for their next musical. In two previous, successful instances Helburn and Langner had recycled Guild plays into Guild musicals (turning PORGY into PORGY AND BESS, and GREEN GROW THE LILACS into OKLAHOMA!). Now, the Guild wanted Rodgers & Hammerstein to make a musical out of LILIOM.

Hungarian playwright Ferenc Molnar’s elaborate fantasy had its American premiere under the auspices of the Theatre Guild, in a 1921 production translated by Benjamin F. Glazer that starred Joseph Schildkraut in the title role and Eva Le Gallienne as Julie. The property was rich with musical potential, but before it could be transformed Helburn and Langner had to convince not only their skeptical American authors, but also their Hungarian one.

Molnar had already turned down several requests to turn LILIOM into an opera. And he was ready to resist again, until, at the Guild's invitation, he attended a performance of OKLAHOMA! and was instantly won over. LILIOM could sing, he decreed, if Rodgers & Hammerstein wrote the score.

But Rodgers & Hammerstein had their doubts too. It was not the themes of domestic violence and fateful tragedy in LILIOM that deterred the authors—in fact these issues only served to whet their appetite for challenging work—but the play's locale: Budapest, Hungary. In 1944 Budapest was ravaged by war and setting a play there would only compete with the headlines or, worse, seem exploitative.

If a musical of LILIOM were to work, they concluded, it would have to be relocated, and Rodgers and Hammerstein were reluctant to do so. Helburn suggested a New Orleans setting, with Liliom turned into a tough and exotic Creole character. Oscar Hammerstein II demurred on the grounds that his lyrics, which were always steeped in the dialect of their locale, would become riddled with the "ze's" and "zose's" of the Creole accent and end up sounding like a chorus of buzz saws.

But then Richard Rodgers came up with the concept of New England in the late 19th century and everything fell into place. Liliom would become Billy Bigelow, barker on a carousel in a small fishing village, and Julie would be featured as one of the local millworkers. While images of clambakes and lighthouses danced in their heads, the authors went to work. The very first song they wrote for the score was the most daunting—Billy’s powerful and insightful "Soliloquy." As daring as anything in the groundbreaking OKLAHOMA!, this number provided character, motivation, passion and heartfelt emotion—in an unprecedented eight-minute solo.

Structurally, CAROUSEL proved as daring as OKLAHOMA! in style and form, while telling a story that was far more sophisticated. Here, in addition to Billy’s "Soliloquy," the innovations included the opening, which scuttled the traditional overture entirely and replaced it with a lush "Carousel Waltz" that underscored a storied prologue in mime; and the now-classic "If I Loved You" scene, in which dialogue and fragments of song were intermingled to breathtaking effects.

CAROUSEL began rehearsals in early 1945. Guiding it was OKLAHOMA!'s stellar creative team: authors Rodgers & Hammerstein, producers Helburn and Langner, director Rouben Mamoulian, choreographer Agnes de Mille and costume designer Miles White. Featured in the original cast were John Raitt as Billy, Jan Clayton as Julie Jordan, and Jean Darling as Carrie.

After tryouts in New Haven and Boston, CAROUSEL opened at Broadway's Majestic Theatre on April 19, 1945, and eventually ran for 890 performances. Even the skeptics were confounded: while it could never be the unexpected revelation that OKLAHOMA! was, CAROUSEL did the impossible—it followed a smash hit by succeeding in its own right. Audiences in the throes of World War II responded deeply to its story of a young widow raising a child alone, and its spiritual imagery had a profound impact on those who had lost a loved one overseas. The effects of CAROUSEL and its authemn, "You’ll Never Walk Alone" are haunting to this day.

Winner of the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award as Best Musical of 1945, the Broadway run was followed by a two year national tour. In London CAROUSEL followed OKLAHOMA! directly into the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, opening in June of 1950 and playing for over a year and a half. In 1956 the motion picture version was released by Twentieth Century Fox. Filmed on location in Boothbay Harbor, Maine, it was originally slated to star Frank Sinatra as Billy and Judy Garland as Julie. However, she withdrew prior to filming and he left over a contract dispute during the first weeks of shooting. They were replaced by the OKLAHOMA! movie co-stars Gordon MacRae and Shirley Jones.

CAROUSEL has been performed by hundreds of theatre and opera companies throughout the world. Notable productions include the Music Theater of Lincoln Center with John Raitt re-creating the role of Billy (1965); a television version starring Robert Goulet with choreography by Edward Villella, broadcast on ABC-TV (1967); and a summer run at the U.S. Pavilion of the 1958 Brussels Exposition, with Jan Clayton re-creating the role of Julie.

Director Nicholas Hytner, choreographer Sir Kenneth MacMillan and designer Bob Crowley collaborated on the revelatory 1992 Royal National Theatre production of CAROUSEL in London, which played to sold-out houses in the Lyttleton Theatre before transferring to the Shaftesbury Theatre in the West End the following September, where it was presented by Cameron Mackintosh.

In March 1994, CAROUSEL marked its first return to Broadway since the original run, playing for a year at the Vivian Beaumont Theater. Presented by Lincoln Center Theater, this CAROUSEL went on to receive a record-setting five Tony Awards (the most of any show that season), including Best Director of a Musical (Hytner), Best Choreography (MacMillan), Best Scenic Design (Crowley) and Best Revival of a Musical 1994. A Japanese production played extended engagements in Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka in 1995, and a U.S. National Tour visited over 40 cities from February of 1996 through May of 1997, and starred Broadway stars to be Patrick Wilson, Sarah Uriarte Berry and Jennifer Laura Thompson. In 2002, Carnegie Hall hosted a concert performance with Hugh Jackman, Audra McDonald, Philip Bosco, Blythe Danner, John Raitt, Norbert Leo Butz, Jason Danieley, Judy Kaye and Lauren Ward. That same year, Emily Loesser appeared in CAROUSEL at the Royal Festival Hall in London. Shirley Jones played Nettie at the Reagle Theatre in 2005. In 2007, the Boston Pops' CAROUSEL featured Aaron Lazar, Liz Callaway, Jason Danieley and Marin Mazzie, while R&H opera star Lesley Garrett played Nettie in a 2008 West End revival.

CAROUSEL had always been Rodgers & Hammerstein’s personal favorite; the latest turns on the CAROUSEL prove that their opinion is still shared by audiences everywhere.


"You’ll Never Walk Alone" (music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II) was written for the 1945 Broadway musical play CAROUSEL. The song highlights a momentous plot turn early in Act II, and is reprised as the musical’s powerful and inspirational finale.

From the very beginning, this song has always had a special resonance and meaning beyond its context and function within the score for CAROUSEL. During the musical’s original Broadway run, with the world at war, many in the audience who had a husband, a brother, a son or a lover fighting overseas, found solace in its meaning and its message.

In addition to numerous recordings of the song on CAROUSEL cast albums and the motion picture soundtrack, "You’ll Never Walk Alone" has been recorded by dozens of pop, rock, gospel, country western and opera stars, including: Louis Armstrong, Chet Atkins, Shirley Bassey, Glen Campbell, Ray Charles, Perry Como, Michael Crawford, Placido Domingo, Aretha Franklin, Judy Garland, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Marilyn Horne, Mahalia Jackson, Patti LaBelle, Cleo Laine, Mario Lanza, Darlene Love, Jim Nabors, Olivia Newton John, Pink Floyd, Elvis Presley, The Righteous Brothers, Nina Simone, Frank Sinatra, Kiri Te Kanawa, Conway Twitty and Dionne Warwick.

Rodgers & Hammerstein’s "You'll Never Walk Alone" has a unique history in Great Britain where a 1963 cover version of the song by the Liverpool band Gerry and the Pacemakers was embraced by the locals (known as "scousers"), and lead to its adoption as the motto and anthem of the Liverpool Football Club. Subsequently, it has become ubiquitous at football (soccer) matches all over the world.

True to the song's intent, it has also provided inspiration in times of peril, and has served as a potent fundraiser for causes borne out of disaster. In 1985, a recording of "You’ll Never Walk Alone" featuring British pop and rock stars, was put together to raise funds for victims of the Bradford Stadium tragedy — and did: the song was a Number One single in Britain throughout the summer of 1985, and raised hundreds of thousand of pounds for the cause. In September 1997, on the eve of the funeral for Diana, Princess of Wales, scores of Londoners who had gathered for the event broke into spontaneous, subdued choruses of "You’ll Never Walk Alone."  In happier times, BBC live coverage showed over 750,000 Britons gathered on the Mall in front of Buckingham Palace in June 2002, singing "You'll Never Walk Alone" during the 2002 Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II.

In the United States in recent years, "You’ll Never Walk Alone," long associated with Jerry Lewis’ Labor Day Muscular Dystrophy telethons, has also been adopted by such causes as Hurricane Andrew and Hurricane Katrina relief and the annual national AIDS Walk campaigns. Marilyn Horne, Joan Baez and others have sung "You’ll Never Walk Alone" at AIDS Walk rallies in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia and Chicago, and in 1992 Patti LaBelle made a new recording of the song for a national AIDS Walk public service announcement. Bringing the song full circle, at the 1994 AIDS Walk New York, Shirley Verrett and the cast of the Broadway production of CAROUSEL sang "You’ll Never Walk Alone" on the Great Lawn in Central Park before a crowd of 30,000.  17 years later, CAROUSEL co-star Audra McDonald sang the song, to a crowd now swollen to over 45,000.

Rolling into the 21st Century, "You'll Never Walk Alone" continues to inspire the world at times of triumph and tragedy. In 2002, opera great Renee Fleming sang it at Ground Zero as part of the first year anniversary commemorations of the devastating 9/11 attacks; in 2009 she sang the song for a worldwide audience once again, this time backed by the US Naval Academy Glee Club on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial for a globally-televised concert in honor of the Inauguration of President Barack Obama.


Suggested Additional Resources

Ewen, David. Richard Rodgers, Holt, New York 1957

_____. With a Song in His Heart (Richard Rodgers), Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1963

Fordin, Hugh. Getting To Know Him: The Biography of Oscar Hammerstein II, Random House, New York 1977

Green, Stanley. The Rodgers and Hammerstein Story, John Day, New York 1963; DeCapo Press paperback, 1980

_____. The Rodgers & Hammerstein Fact Book, Hal Leonard, Milwaukee 1980

Hammerstein II, Oscar. Lyrics, with an introduction by the author and a preface by Stephen Sondheim, Hal Leonard, Milwaukee 1985

_____. A Real Nice Clambake, illustrated by Nadine Westcott, Little, Brown & Co., Boston 1992

Mordden, Ethan.Rodgers & Hammerstein, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York 1992

Nolan, Frederick. The Sound of Their Music, Walker, New York 1978

Rodgers, Richard. Musical Stages: An Autobiography, Random House, New York 1975; Jove Paperback, New York 1978

 

Taylor, Deems. Some Enchanted Evenings, Harper, New York 1953

 


Awards for Carousel

Donaldson Awards

January 01, 1945 — 8 Awards including Best Musical, Book, Lyrics and Score

L.A. Dramalogue Awards

January 01, 1994 — 8 Awards
January 01, 1996 — 8 Awards

New York Drama Critics Circle Awards (United States)

January 01, 1945 — Best Musical

Theatre World Awards (United States)

November 30, 1943 — 3 Awards - Charles Lang, Bambi Linn and John Raitt
July 24, 2013 — 1 Award - Ann Crowley
July 24, 1993 — 2 Awards - Michael Hayden and Audra Ann McDonald

Outer Critics Circle Awards (United States)

July 24, 1993 — Best Actress (Musical) - Audra Ann McDonald
July 24, 1993 — Best Set, Costume, and Lighting Design

Laurence Olivier Awards (London) (United States)

July 24, 1993 — Best Actress (Musical) - Joanna Riding
July 24, 1993 — Best Performance in a Supporting Role (Musical) - Janie DeeBest
July 24, 1993 — Best Director (Musical) - Nicholas Hytner
November 30, 1991 — Best Musical Revival

Drama Desk Awards (United States)

November 30, 1944 — Best Musical
November 30, 1993 — Outstanding Choreography - Kenneth MacMilan and Jane Elliott
July 24, 1994 — Outstanding Director of a Musical - Nicholas Hytner
July 24, 1994 — Nominated for Outstanding Actor in a Musical - Michael Hayden and Outstanding Revival of a Musical

Tony Awards (United States)

July 24, 2013 — Nominated for Best Scenic Designer - Oliver Smith
July 24, 1994 — Best Featured Actress in a Musical - Audra Ann McDonald
July 24, 1994 — Best Choreographer - Sir Kenneth MacMillan
July 24, 1994 — Best Director of a Musical - Nicholas Hytner
July 24, 1994 — Best Musical Revival - Produced by Lincoln Center Theatre, André Bishop, Bernard Gersten, The Royal National Theatre, Cameron Mackintosh, and the Rodgers and Hammerstein Organization
July 24, 1994 — Best Scenic Designer - Bob Crowley

Vocal Range of Characters:

NameVocal TypeLow NoteHigh Note
Julie JordanSopranoDbGb
Carrie PipperidgeSopranoDG
Nettie FowlerMezzoCG
Billy BigelowBaritoneGG
Enoch SnowTenorBA
Jigger CraiginBaritoneCD

Vocal Range notes for Carousel:

Photos for Carousel

// Photos

Writers Notes for Carousel

AGNES DE MILLE: THE DANCES OF CAROUSEL
Written By: Agnes DeMille

In the last year of her life, legendary choreographer Agnes de Mille revisited her contributions to the original groundbreaking 1945 Broadway production of Rodgers & Hammerstein’s CAROUSEL, resulting in an extraordinary video of insight, commentary and recollection.  Hosted by the composer’s daughter, Mary Rodgers, the video includes the dance sequences from “June is Bustin’ Out All Over,” “The Hornpipe,” and the Act II Ballet, recreated by Ms. de Mille’s longtime associate Gemze de Lappe and performed by members of the Nashville Ballet.  Commentary from Ms. de Mille and Ms. de Lappe includes analysis, discussion and demonstration, advice and suggestions for the director, and discussion of sets, costumes and lighting.  This instructional video is included with the materials provided by R&H Theatricals for CAROUSEL and is recommended for viewing by your entire production team, cast and crew. 


The New York Times
Written By: Oscar Hammerstein II

Toward the end of January, 1944, Theresa Helburn and Lawrence Langner beckoned Dick Rodgers and me into a dark corner of Sardi's, put their fingers to their lips with a hushing gesture, looked from left to right to make sure no one was listening, and whispered, 'How would you like to do a musical play based on Molnar's Liliom?' We looked from right to left and whispered back at them in unison: 'No.' A pause. Then Lawrence asked, 'Why?' We took turns listing successive objections, all having to do with the original scene, Hungary. 'It's a beautiful story,' Terry commented wistfully. We agreed. 'Interesting set of characters,' volunteered Lawrence. Granted. We had some cannelloni, and ice cream and raisin cake, and parted.

The following week we met at my house and Miss Helburn was prepared to meet our locale objection: 'Move it from Hungary to Louisiana. You boys say you want to write about America. Louisiana is America$mdash;but it also has a European flavor. Liliom can be a Creole.' This sounded like a good idea. I promised to give it serious consideration.

Well, I brushed up on my Creole atmosphere and ran bang into a disconcerting difficulty$mdash;the dialect. Meanwhile, however, Molnar's tender story and its strange characters had begun to hypnotize us. Dick and I kept telling each other why we weren't going to adapt 'Liliom,' and then we would drift off into a contemplation of all its attractive possibilities. The very difficulties of the job we knew would lead us into unusual devices. We knew we wouldn't wind up with a conventional musical comedy. It was obvious that we would have to mix in values from the dramatic stage and opera. The idea that really opened the way to it all was a suggestion by Dick that at first sounded downright silly. This was to transplant the play to the New England coast. But it sounded silly only for a few seconds.

I began to see an attractive ensemble$mdash;sailors, whalers, girls who worked in the mills up the river, clambakes on near-by islands, an amusement park on the seaboard, things people could do in crowds, people who were strong and alive and lusty. The poignancy of the story, I was certain, would not suffer from gaiety of background. It would enhance it. As for the two leading characters, Julie with her courage and inner strength and outer simplicity seemed more indigenous to Maine than to Budapest. Liliom is, of course, an international character, indigenous to nowhere. So now, for the first time, Dick and I felt that irrational enthusiasm that lures men into the harrowing project of writing a musical play. And away we went.

from 'Turns on a Carousel'


Performance Tools for Carousel

AccompanEase:
 This product is a rehearsal tool that allows for unlimited teaching, training and practice of individual vocal parts or dance sequences. Contact Realtime Music Solutions for more information: www.accompanease.com, via email: info@rms.biz, or via phone: 212-620-0774.

InstrumentalEase:
 This product is an orchestra enhancement instrument capable of augmenting a traditional ensemble of any size. Contact Realtime Music Solutions for more information: www.rms.biz, via email: info@rms.biz, or via phone: 212-620-0774.

Agnes De Mille:The Dances of CAROUSEL:

For use by licensed stage productions of Rodgers & Hammerstein's CAROUSEL, we are pleased to offer the instructional video:

A discussion of CAROUSEL with one of its creators.

In the last year of her life, legendary choreographer Agnes de Mille, revisited her contributions to the original groundbreaking 1945 Broadway production of Rodgers & Hammerstein's CAROUSEL, resulting in this extraordinary video of insight, commentary and recollection, hosted by Mary Rodgers, daughter of the composer.

Featured in this video:

Complete uninterrupted dance sequences from CAROUSEL— 'June is Bustin' Out All Over' The Hornpipe ('Blow High, Blow Low') Act II Ballet (Louise on the Beach) Choreographed by Miss de Mille Recreated by her longtime associate, Gemze de Lappe Performed by members of the Nashville Ballet  Commentary from Miss de Mille and Miss de Lappe, including analysis, discussion and demonstration Advice and suggestions for the director, including auditioning and casting Discussion of the sets, costumes and lighting Displays of Miles White's costume sketches for the original production

Recommended for viewing by your entire production team, cast and crew

Running time: 75 minutes

Contact The R&H Theatre Library for more information: theatre@rnh.com


Playbill VIP:

MAKE YOUR OWN PLAYBILL! Playbill VIP allows you to create your very own Playbill Program. We have provided Playbill with all of the credits, song listings, musical numbers and more so that most of the work is already done for you. Just add your productions details, photos of the cast and share it with all of your friends. Learn more: www.playbillvip.com


Rental Materials for Carousel

STANDARD

  • Orchestration Package (27 Books)
    • 1 – FLUTE I (Doubling Piccolo)
    • 1 – PIANO VOCAL SCORE
    • 1 – FLUTE II (Doubling Piccolo)
    • 1 – OBOE (Doubling English Horn)
    • 1 – CLARINET I
    • 1 – CLARINET II
    • 1 – BASSOON (Optional Bass Clarinet)
    • 1 – HORN I
    • 1 – HORN II
    • 1 – HORN III
    • 1 – TRUMPET I
    • 1 – TRUMPET II
    • 1 – TROMBONE I
    • 1 – TROMBONE II
    • 1 – TROMBONE III
    • 1 – TUBA
    • 1 – PERCUSSION
    • 1 – HARP
    • 2 – VIOLIN I (Divisi)
    • 2 – VIOLIN II (Divisi)
    • 2 – VIOLA (Divisi)
    • 2 – CELLO (Divisi)
    • 1 – BASS
  • Rehearsal Set (22 Books & 1 Dance DVD)
    • 20 – Libretto/Vocal Books
    • 1 – Dance DVD
    • 1 – Logo CD
    • 2 – PIANO VOCAL SCORE
    • 0 – Digital Logo
  • Carousel - Synthesizer String (1 Str Syn I, 1 Str Syn II)
    • 1 – SYNTHESIZER STRING I
    • 1 – SYNTHESIZER STRING II
  • CAROUSEL - Two Piano Arrangement (2 Act I, 2 Act II)
    • 2 – TWO PIANO ARRANGEMENT - Act I
    • 2 – TWO PIANO ARRANGEMENT - Act II

ADDITIONAL

  • Libretto/Vocal Books 10 pack
    • 10 – Libretto/Vocal Books
  • CAROUSEL - PRE-PRODUCTION PACKAGE
    • 1 – Libretto/Vocal Books
    • 1 – PIANO VOCAL SCORE

Cast Requirements for Carousel

PRINCIPALS
3 Women
3 Men

FEATURED
2 Women
2 Men

ENSEMBLE
Large singing-dancing ensemble with Townspeople, Amusement Park Carnies, Youngsters and Seafaring Men

CHARACTERS
Carrie Pipperidge
Julie Jordan
Mrs. Mullin
Billy Bigelow
Juggler
1st Policeman
David Bascombe
Nettie Fowler
Enoch Snow
Jigger Craigin
Arminy
2nd Policeman
Captain
1st Heavenly Friend (Brother Joshua)
2nd Heavenly Friend
Starkeeper
Louise
Carnival Boy
Enoch Snow, Jr.
Principal
Dr. Seldon
Townspeople, Amusement Park Carnies, Youngsters, and Seafaring Men

Set Requirements for Carousel

CAROUSEL takes place on the New England Coast between 1873 and 1888.

SPECIFIC LOCATIONS
An Amusement Park on the New England Coast
A Tree-lined Path along the Shore
Nettie Fowler's Spa on the Ocean Front
On an Island across the Bay
Mainland Waterfront
Up There (Heaven)
A Beach
Outside Julie's Cottage
Outside a Schoolhouse

Materials Notes

CLARINET I and CLARINET II are both B-Flat Clarinets.

The BASS CLARINET part in the BASSOON book has been double lined for BASSOON, if a doubler or an additional player is not available.

TROMBONE I, TROMBONE II and TROMBONE III are all Tenor Trombones.

The HARP part may be played on a synthesizer with a harp patch if a real harp is not available, but the HARP part is essential  cannot be omitted  The PERCUSSION book is written to be played by one percussionist, with the exception of “The Carousel Waltz” which can be played by either one, two or three percussionists.

The original string breakdown was 5 VIOLINS 1-A, 4 VIOLINS 1-B, 4 VIOLAS, 3 CELLOS and 2 BASSES.


Trap Set, Timpani, Triangle, Bells, Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Wood Block, Tambourine

Featured News

Live from Lincoln Center Presents RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN'S CAROUSEL
Live From Lincoln Center presents the New York Philharmonic’s production of Rodgers & Hammerstein’s iconic American musical, Carousel, featuring a star-studded cast including Kelli O'Hara, Nathan Gunn, Stephanie Blythe, Shuler Hensley, Jason Danieley, Jessie Mueller, Kate Burton, John Cullum and New York City Ballet dancers Robert Fairchild and Tiler Peck. “Rodgers & Hammerstein’s Carousel” is hosted by Audra McDonald and will air on PBS stations on Friday, April 26, 2013 at 9 p.m. (ET) (check local listings) Read More
CAROUSEL in New York and Paris
CAROUSEL - Rodgers & Hammerstein's personal favorite of all their musicals, and dubbed "the best musical of the 20th Century" by Time Magazine - is getting two high-profile presentations this spring.  Read More

Media Rights

Promotional

1. The Promotional Video shall be recorded and shown for the sole purposes of advertising your licensed production of the Play. For such a video, R&H allows theatres to film up to 10 minutes of total footage taken at either a performance or rehearsal (i.e.: 10 minutes of scripted moments.)

2. The Promotional Video may not include more than (i) 1 minute from any song or (ii) 3 minutes, in the aggregate, of footage of copyrighted material from the Play.

3. The Promotional Video may not include any sponsorship or underwriting without the prior consent of all R&H.

4. The Promotional Video must be submitted to R&H by sending the source video and video link to editor@rnh.com.

5. The Promotional Video must include the following: "Rights courtesy of Rodgers & Hammerstein, www.rnh.com"

6. Upon approval by R&H of the Promotional Video, you agree not to make any alterations in the approved copyrighted material used therein and you agree to obtain the prior written approval of R&H for any other use of the Promotional Video not specifically granted herein.

7. Upon termination of the Term, you shall cease to have any rights to use the Promotional Video including, without limitation, in connection with a future production of the Play, and shall immediately remove its content from any and all websites on the Internet.

8. You may not use a commercially available recording.

9. Any additional promotional rights must be approved by R&H by contactingTheatre@rnh.com.

 

*Promotional video rights can only be granted once a performance license for Carousel has been secured. Please contact customer service if you have any questions. If you have not yet applied for Carousel, you can do so here. LOG IN to learn more.

Archival

1. Subject to the information provided in Licensee’s application and payment of the fee as set forth in Paragraph 3 herein, Licensee shall have the right to create a single copy of the Video for internal archival, private viewing purposes at Licensee’s address only and shall not be re-copied, distributed or otherwise exploited, in whole or in part, in any media now known or hereafter developed without the prior written approval of R&H. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Video shall not be (i) sold to anyone (ii) telecast by any television station or network, including, without limitation, any local cable station or (iii) distributed, exhibited or otherwise exploited over the Internet or as part of any online auction.

2. Licensee agrees to include the following language at the beginning of the Video:

©Year By R&H Theatricals. This production was videotaped by special arrangement with R&H Theatricals for archival purposes only. All Rights Reserved.

WARNING: Federal law provides severe civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized reproduction, distribution or exhibition of copyrighted motion pictures, videotapes or videodiscs. Criminal copyright infringement is investigated by the FBI and may constitute a felony with a maximum penalty of up to five years in prison and/or a $250,000.00 fine.

This Video is provided to you for private, organizational and home viewing purposes only. By accepting the Video, you agree not to authorize or permit the Video to be copied, distributed, broadcast, telecast or otherwise exploited, in whole or in part, in any media now known or hereafter developed.

*You must be and licensed to present Carousel in order to license Archival rights. Please contact customer service with any questions.

Distribution

1. Licensee shall have the right to create the Video and to make up to one hundred (100) copies of the Video for sale at cost to its Members for internal archival, private viewing purpose at Licensee’s address and for private, home-viewing purpose by Members, and shall not be re-copied, distributed or otherwise exploited, in whole or in part, in any media now known or hereafter developed without the prior written approval of R&H. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Video shall not be (i) sold to anyone other than the Members (ii) telecast by any television station or network, including, without limitation, any local cable station or (iii) distributed, exhibited or otherwise exploited over the Internet or as part of any online auction.

2. Licensee agrees to include the following language at the beginning of the Video:

©Year By R&H Theatricals. This production was videotaped by special arrangement with R&H Theatricals for archival purposes only. All Rights Reserved. WARNING: Federal law provides severe civil and criminal penalties for the unauthorized reproduction, distribution or exhibition of copyrighted motion pictures, videotapes or videodiscs. Criminal copyright infringement is investigated by the FBI and may constitute a felony with a maximum penalty of up to five years in prison and/or a $250,000.00 fine. This Video is provided to you for private, organizational and home viewing purposes only. By accepting the Video, you agree not to authorize or permit the Video to be copied, distributed, broadcast, telecast or otherwise exploited, in whole or in part, in any media now known or hereafter developed.

*You must be and licensed to present Carousel in order to license Distribution rights. Please contact customer service with any questions.
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